In this Insight, the Martin Prosperity Institute continues its investigation into the differences between the creative class and the service class. This next Insight focuses on the distribution of and outcomes for these two occupational classes by sex. It answers descriptive questions such as: are the sexes evenly represented in each occupational class? Does sex carry a wage or income premium in a particular class? What proportion of part time workers (both voluntary and involuntary) are male or female?
In Exhibit 1 we show the differences in economic outcomes between the service class and the creative class. With each class, we show the difference between those who are male with those who are female.
Exhibit 1: Occupational Class and Sex
Females Dominate the Service Class – But Males Out-Earn Them
The ‘share’ row depicts the share of each occupational class that is male or female. The creative class has a fairly even sex distribution (50.7% male and 49.3% female) as an occupational group. In addition, male creatives tend to work a bit more hours (33.2) than female creatives (29.0) on average per week. They also make slightly more money than female creatives (112% of the average income and 105% of the average wage).
In contrast to the creative class, the sex distribution in the service class is hardly equal. In the service class, 63.2% (about 2/3) of workers are female, and 36.8% (about 1/3) are male. And yet despite this difference, male service workers still out-earn female service workers on average, taking home 122% of the average service income and 110% of the average service wage. Similarly, males in the creative class also take home more of the average creative income (112%) and the average creative wage (105%).
Males out-earn women (on average) in both of these occupational classes. With regards to this research, we see that when men work, they work more hours (weekly) and start at a higher wage. Of particular interest to policymakers, a deeper exploration of American women by occupational class is pending publication through the Institute. Look for news of its release as announced through a future Insight.
Next week, the Insight series will begin to survey the characteristics of the jobs themselves, beginning with the distribution of work-provided benefits, and succeeded by work schedule, self-employment, and number of jobs.
The Martin Prosperity Institute at the University of Toronto’s Rotman School of Management is the world’s leading think-tank on the role of sub-national factors—location, place and city-regions—in global economic prosperity. We take an integrated view of prosperity, looking beyond economic measures to include the importance of quality of place and the development of people’s creative potential.